تحلیلی پارادایمی بر تکنیکهای پژوهش عملیاتی(مرداد ۱۳۹۴)
Numerous categories of science have been developed by scientists. Among these, the classification of sciences into two hard and soft branches can be mentioned. Sciences such as physics, chemistry and mathematics were hard sciences, and psychology and sociology were soft sciences. Experts have always tried to study human phenomena with a strict, quantitative perspective. From their point of view, in order to make a discipline scientific, the subjects to be studied must be strictly and carefully studied. Therefore, there was no belief in an independent methodology for the soft sciences, as many scholars believed that a similar path to hard sciences would have to be taken to increase the validity of findings in such areas. August Kent called sociology social physics, and Durkheim used statistical and quantitative methods widely in his writing. The peak of such thinking was prevalent in the mid-twentieth century in the works of scholars of the Vienna Circle. Overall, the dominant approach to humanities research has been a positivist attitude. The effects of such an approach have been the lack of methodological diversity in the humanities and the one-dimensional attitude to human and social phenomena. Over time, this attitude was criticized by the activities of critical school scholars, including Habermas, who advocated methodological independence for the humanities and social sciences. Thus, along with the positivist paradigm, other paradigms, including the critical and post-structuralist paradigms, emerged over time. Each of these paradigms is a model for examining the peripheral world. The existence of multiple paradigms means that there are multiple perspectives and tools for studying different phenomena. It can even be combined to look at a complex phenomenon.
Operational research is an interdisciplinary and multi-dimensional knowledge that has been influenced by various disciplines and sciences. Each of the mathematical, biological, social and critical sciences have somehow influenced it. Therefore, operational research does not have a unique and distinctive image. In science and academia, the emphasis is on science and on the technology world in the user world, even among academics about the nature of it. Some academics, especially in the United States, emphasize the hard and quantitative aspects of this field, while in Europe soft and qualitative aspects are more important. Quantitative and hard models are also preferred in Iranian academic circles, which is well-known in the academic and management faculties. Most graduate theses, papers, and textbooks examine and evaluate quantitative and mathematical models. Although the hard and traditional image dominates the academic environment in Iran, some scholars have done considerable work in this field in recent years. The scholars of this field generally ignore the soft and critical aspects of the field. The topics discussed in this book are intertwined with various areas including philosophy of science, sciences, methodologies of research, psychology and social sciences. In Iranian academic circles in the field of management, much of what is deserving of attention is devoted to philosophical and fundamental issues. In doctoral courses, it is merely a course on the philosophical foundations of organizational theory, even in which students are often introduced to very general topics. Therefore, the failure of such a work to fundamentally analyze and analyze research techniques and techniques in operation is strongly felt.
The main purpose of this book is to review and evaluate the mainstream of operational research. The organization of the work is such that first the various characteristics of the field are examined and in fact a kind of research. The background of the different methods and methodologies of this field is discussed. Subsequently, the authors have proposed a new type of paradigm for operational research knowledge. Each paradigm consists of components and all of these components are discussed in detail in different chapters of the book. These components are, respectively, metaphors, ontologies, epistemologies, methodologies, values, and ethics. Together, these components form the map of operational research science. With such a map in hand, it would be easy to describe the methods. In addition to the paradigmatic typology, the authors have provided a comprehensive classification of issues in this field. Proper understanding of the issues can determine the appropriate methods for each of these areas. In summary, the present book provides an overview of issues, methods, methodologies, paradigms, and areas of application of methods. The application areas of the present book are extensive. This quad concept include:
- Identifying the characteristics and boundaries of the field of operational research;
- Identifying the different areas of study in this field for research and study (this is very useful for graduate students);
- Identifying the mainstream of the discipline (students and users of the discipline are introduced to the discipline and techniques of the discipline);
- Determine the scope of application of each method. In fact, any method is useful in one area and may not work in another. Some methods are more appropriate for examining physical world issues, some for examining social world issues, and others for examining normative issues.